The power of naringin
Bioflavonoids are natural-origin bioactive polyphenolic compounds and are the most common group of polyphenols present in plants, fruits and vegetables.
In the Genus Citrus, the most common bioflavonoids are naringin and hesperidin. They occur mostly in the peel of some citrus such as Seville bitter orange, sweet orange, grapefruit, lemon…, although they may also be present to a lesser extent in their pulps, juices, leaves, seeds and flowers.
The proportion these compounds are found in each citrus depends on the variety, the state of ripening of the fruit and the climatic conditions to which it has been exposed.
Thanks to the multitude of pharmacological activities and beneficial properties of bioflavonoids, there is a growing interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries for their incorporation as functional ingredients in various applications: nutraceutical supplements, pharmaceutical products, human food and animal feed.
Naringin is a beige and light-yellow odourless powder included in the bioflavonoid family.
This glycosylated flavanone was discovered in 1857 by De Vry in the flowers of grapefruit trees (Pang et al., 2010) although currently the highest extraction performance occurs from the peel.
Different grapefruit varieties have a variable flavonoid content, ranging from 2186.47 to 9871.69 mg / kg fresh weight (Xi et al., 2014).
In addition, the concentration of naringin in grapefruit peel depends on the ripeness of the citrus, being higher in immature fruits (Salmah et al., 1990).
This citrus flavonoid is considered responsible for the bitterness of the fruits in which it is found. Due to this, it is widely used in food and carbonated beverage industries.
Also, it is incorporated in the formulation of personal care products, cosmetics and perfumery. (Giannuzzo et al., 2000).
HEALTH AND WELFARE
Natural flavonoids have specific physicochemical and physiological characteristics that give them a variety of functional properties.
For example, naringin has different biological activities and pharmacological effects (Yin et al., 2015) that help to reduce the risk of different diseases.
Like the rest of flavonoids, naringin has excellent antioxidant properties that promote healthy aging. As it has been shown in different in vitro and in vivo studies, they may inhibit the production of different types of free radicals, reactive oxygen species and oxidases enzymes, reducing oxidative stress. (1)
These compounds are also known for their intervention in suppressing inflammatory processes (Jung and Sang, 2014) and for their antimicrobial activity (Céliz et al., 2011).
It differs from other bioflavonoids because of its bioactivity in the regulation of heart rhythm, its cardioprotective effect (Rani et al., 2013) and the ability to improve the lipid profile (Chanet et al., 2012), thanks to its ability to reduce levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood, in turn increasing HDL cholesterol levels. All of this contributes to the control of blood pressure and the prevention of the appearance of atherosclerosis.
In addition, it has been shown antidiabetic properties (Shen W et al., 2018) and that it promotes thermogenesis (Silver HJ et al., 2011), which makes it an ideal ingredient in dietary supplement formulations to promote health, and oriented to the loss of body fat and weight.
FOOD AND BEVERAGE INDUSTRIES
In food and beverage industries, flavonoids are used to improve the quality and stability of products, acting as functional ingredients (flavourings, food colouring …) and/or as health-promoting components (antioxidants, anti-inflammatories …)
Naringin is mainly incorporated as a flavouring and/or bitter agent. Among its most common applications we can find carbonated drinks, sweets, sauces, syrups … and to produce bakery and confectionery products. In some formulations of bitter drinks, it has been the perfect candidate to re-place quinine.
In addition, based on the multitude of beneficial and healthy properties, it has become an ingredient of choice by food and beverage industries which take care of health.
ANIMAL FEED AND HEALTH
Some studies with poultries have shown that certain citrus flavonoids improve the antioxidant state in the plasma and, as a result, the performance of them. (1)
In animal feed industries, Naringin is also incorporated as a flavouring agent, increasing the taste of the product by the activation of the taste receptors. In addition, its pleasant texture produces improvements in palatability. All this leads to a reinforcement of ingestive behavior.
BORDAS: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
Bordas, since its creation in 1922, has focused its efforts on obtaining and extracting ingredients from natural sources in order to satisfy our customers with reliable and effective products.
In recent years, the market demands more and more for effective functional ingredients obtained from natural sources.
The natural environment and climatic conditions of the Mediterranean Arch, with many hours of sunshine, boost the development of high concentrations of citrus flavonoids in the fruits.
To cover this growingly need, Bordas extracts the citrus bioflavonoids guaranteeing a sustainable development, which has become one of the most demanded skills and a success of the company.
Our R&D&i department has developed in our facilities our own extraction and purification processes using the latest technology in its own. This method allows Bordas to obtain an excellent performance in the extraction of high-purity-and-quality naringin from natural sources, such as grapefruit peel.
Bordas’s citrus bioflavonoid portfolio offers flavonoids obtained from other fruits besides grapefruit such as: bitter orange, sweet orange… In our company, each fruit is analysed and selected previously for its appearance and optimal state.
Among these high-quality products that have various pharmacological properties and activities, you can find:
- Hesperidin: Hesperidin is a venotonic flavonoid that promotes good blood circulation.
- Diosmin (https://www.bordas-sa.com/en/diosmin-your-circulation-support/): Diosmin is a flavonoid of great interest to the pharmaceutical, dietary supplement and nutraceutical products industries, thanks to the different proven benefits for human and animal health, such as heart-healthy activity.
- Neohesperidin: Neohesperidin is the main flavonoid found in the Bitter orange of Seville. From this citrus flavonoids, Bordas obtains the well-known Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone, an intensive and non-caloric sweetener, whom sweetening-power is around 1800 times greater than common sugar or sucrose.
- Citrus Bioflavonoids Complex: Bordas performs custom-made CBC whose majority component varies depending on the final application. It stands out for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, which implies beneficial effects on intestinal health, as well as its great potential to improve our immune system.
Bordas complies national and international requirements that guarantee the quality of our products and processes that are carried out in our facilities.
In addition, in our R+D+i departments we carry out different research projects in which other research centres and universities collaborate closely, with the aim of answering the needs and solving the problems faced by our sector and those of our customers.
Li RR, Pang LL, Du Q, Shi Y, Dai WJ, Yin KS. Apigenin inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and switches immune response in a murine model of asthma. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010; 32(3): 364-370.
Xi, W., Fang, B., Zhao, Q., Jiao, B., Zhou, Z., 2014. Flavonoid composition and antioxidant activities of Chinese local pummelo (Citrus grandis Osbeck.) varieties. Food Chem. 161, 230–238.
Salmah Y, Hasanah MG, Gan Sk. Naringin content in local citrus fruits. 1990; 37(2): 113-121.
Giannuzzo A. et al. Extracción de naringina de Citrus paradisi L. estudio comparativo y optimización de técnicas extractivas. Ciênc Tecnol Aliment, Campinas. 2000 Aug; 20(2): 257-261.
Yin, Lihua et al. Effects of Naringin on Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.” Stem Cells International 2015 (2015):
Jung UJ and Sang RK. Effects of Naringin, a Flavanone Glycoside in Grapefruits and Citrus Fruits, on the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic Projection in the Adult Brain. Neural Regeneration Research. 2014; 9(16): 1514–1517.
Céliz G, Daz M, Carina Audisio M. Antibacterial activity of naringin derivatives against pathogenic stra. J Appl Microbiol. 2011 Jun 14.
Rani, Neha et al. Regulation of Heat Shock Proteins 27 and 70, P-Akt/p-eNOS and MAPKs by Naringin Dampens Myocardial Injury and Dysfunction In Vivo after Ischemia/Reperfusion. Ed. Rajesh Gopalrao Katare. PLoS ONE. 2013; 8(12): e82577.
Chanet A, Milenkovic D, Manach C, Mazur A, Morand C. Citrus flavanones: what is their role in cardiovascular protection. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60: 8809–8822.
Shen W, Xu Y, Lu Y-H. Inhibitory effects of Citrus flavonoids on starch digestion and antihyperglycemic effects in HepG2 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60(38):9609-19. Rev Esp Nutr Hum Diet. 2018; 22(1).
Silver HJ, Dietrich MS, Niswender KD. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in freeliving obese adults. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011;8(1):8.